Stammvater der Familie ist Rodrigo Borgia, der zu Anfang (wir befinden uns im Amtes hat er eine Familie mit vier Kindern (darunter Cesare und Lucrezia). Cesare Borgia soll mit seiner Schwester Lucrezia in Blutschande gelebt haben. Vater Rodrigo Borgia, der als Neffe des Papstes Calixtus III. zum Purpurträger. gelangte mit Rodrigo Borgia ein Spanier auf den Thron Petri. Er nannte sich Lucrezia Borgia (), dancing at the Court of the Pope Alexander.
Lucrezia Borgia - Die schöne Tochter eines PapstesZur größten Machtentfaltung der Borgias kam es unter dessen Neffen Rodrigo Borgia. Rodrigo Borgia (Rodrigo de Borja) wurde am 1. Januar in Játiva bei. Stammvater der Familie ist Rodrigo Borgia, der zu Anfang (wir befinden uns im Amtes hat er eine Familie mit vier Kindern (darunter Cesare und Lucrezia). Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am
Rodrigo Borgia Navigation menu VideoBorgia Diaries - John Doman 'Rodrigo Borgia' Interview
Die zahlreichen Winkelzüge Alexanders, der nach Bedarf die Verbündeten wechselte, dienten in erster Linie dem Ziel, seinen Kindern ein erbliches Reich zu verschaffen.
Wie schon sein Onkel Calixt III. Als sich die Situation durch die Intervention Karls vorübergehend änderte und der kinderlose Ferrandino Ferdinand II.
Als Karl VIII. Dieser erhob, gestützt durch seine Verwandtschaft mit den Visconti , auch Anspruch auf das Herzogtum Mailand.
Ludwig, der kinderlos verheiratet war, betrieb nach der Thronbesteigung sofort die Annullierung seiner Ehe mit Jeanne de Valois , um die Witwe seines Vorgängers Anne de Bretagne zu heiraten und so deren Erbe, die Bretagne , weiterhin im französischen Königreich zu halten.
Dazu benötigte er die Dispens des Papstes, und Alexander sah die Chance gekommen, für seinen Sohn Cesare ein Herzogtum zu erhalten.
September verzichtete Cesare auf das Kardinalat, ein unerhörter Skandal, den Alexander herunterzuspielen versuchte. Für die Dispens des französischen Königs erhielt Cesare das Valentinois eine alte französische Landschaft mit der Hauptstadt Valence verliehen, die zum Herzogtum erhoben wurde.
Die Franzosen brachten jedoch ein Bündnis mit Venedig zustande, das die Sforza, deren Stern im Sinken begriffen war, weiter unter Druck setzte.
Ihre Zustimmung zu der Ehe vier hochadelige Französinnen hatten vorher entrüstet abgelehnt wurde ihr mit dem Kardinalshut für ihren Bruder entlohnt.
Die Sforza hatten sich in der Zwischenzeit mit Sultan Bayezid II. Nach dem Sturz der Sforza, die nach Österreich ins Exil gingen Bianca Maria Sforza war mit dem römisch-deutschen König und späteren Kaiser Maximilian I.
Daraufhin begann Alexander, die Barone des Kirchenstaates unter Druck zu setzen. Erstes Opfer wurden die Caetani : Sie verloren ihre Besitzungen an die Borgia.
Dieser rückte mit französischen und italienischen Truppen vor, um sein neues Herrschaftsgebiet in Besitz zu nehmen.
Die Herrschaft der Franzosen wurde in Mailand aber schon nach kurzer Zeit so unpopulär, dass die Mailänder Ludovico Sforza zurückriefen.
Schon am 5. Februar zog er wieder in Mailand ein. Ohne französische Unterstützung musste Cesare die Kämpfe einstellen, und so kehrte er nach Rom zurück.
Ludovico sollte jedoch schon bald seine Herrschaft endgültig verlieren: bereits im April wurde er von seinen Schweizer Söldnern, die er nicht mehr bezahlen konnte, an die Franzosen ausgeliefert.
Am Peter-und-Pauls-Tag, dem Juni, tobte ein schwerer Sturm über Rom, der nicht nur die Decke des Palastes zum Einsturz brachte, sondern auch den Baldachin, unter dem der Papst thronte.
Der Stützbalken hielt jedoch stand und Alexander kam mit einigen Abschürfungen davon. Besonders populär war die Version, der teufelbündnerische Papst sei mit seinem höllischen Vertragspartner etwas zu hart aneinandergeraten.
Alexander, der in der Zwischenzeit die Stellvertreter der Kirche im Norden Italiens summarisch ihrer Ämter enthoben hatte, versuchte, Venedig, das dort als Schutzmacht fungierte, zum Rückzug zu bewegen.
Pesaro und Rimini fielen kampflos in die Hände Cesares, nur die Manfredi wollten sich nicht kampflos geschlagen geben. Die Belagerung musste im Winter unterbrochen werden und führte erst im nächsten Frühjahr zum Erfolg.
Im darauffolgenden Jahr wurden die beiden erwürgt aus dem Tiber gezogen. Venedig versuchte , den Pontifex zu einem Kreuzzug gegen die Türken zu bewegen; vorerst hatte aber die Romagna als Borgia-Herrschaft Priorität.
Ein Krieg gegen die Türken schien zwar damals für alle europäischen Herrscher wünschenswert, aber keiner machte es sich zu seinem Anliegen, da jedem die eigenen Interessen Vorrang hatten.
So konnte sich Alexander darauf beschränken, von den spanischen und französischen Königen zu verlangen, mit gutem Beispiel voranzugehen, weil er darauf vertrauen konnte, dass es dazu nicht kommen würde.
Frankreich und Spanien hatten sich über eine Teilung des Gebietes verständigt, und König Federico wurde vom Papst abgesetzt. Schon im Juli wurde Capua eingenommen und Federico begab sich nach Ischia , wo er sich dem französischen König unterwarf.
Er erhielt dafür ein französisches Herzogtum, und die Geschichte der Aragonesen auf dem neapolitanischen Thron war damit endgültig zu Ende.
Zu dieser Zeit suchte Alexander auch nach einem passenden Ehemann für seine Tochter Lucrezia Borgia. Lucrezia weigerte sich zunächst, konnte sich aber gegen ihren Vater nicht durchsetzen.
In den Grenzgebieten zu Neapel und allen Teilen Latiums wurden jetzt die Burgen der Colonna und ihrer Verbündeten, der Savelli , erobert und dem Besitz der Borgia zugeschlagen.
Beide Familien wurden überdies im August feierlich exkommuniziert. Im Frühjahr war das Einvernehmen zwischen Spanien und Frankreich in Neapel dem üblichen Krieg zwischen den beiden Mächten gewichen, und Cesare streckte seine Hand nach dem Herzogtum Urbino aus, das den Montefeltre gehörte.
Im Juni kündigte Alexander seinen Besuch von Ferrara in Begleitung aller Kardinäle an, aber dieses Manöver diente lediglich dazu, den Aufbruch seines Sohnes, der mittlerweile zum Bannerträger Gonfaloniere des Papstes befördert worden war, an der Spitze einer Armee in Richtung Spoleto zu verschleiern.
Es sollte das Herzogtum von Urbino überfallen werden, und Cesare hatte sich einer grauenhaften List bedient, um die Eroberung auch der Stadt sicherzustellen.
Nach einer abenteuerlichen Flucht, bei der ihm einige seiner eigenen Burgherren die Aufnahme verweigert hatten, fand er endlich Asyl im Einflussbereich der Serenissima.
Nur kurz danach, am Juli , gelang Cesare die Einnahme von Camerino wieder durch Verrat , bei der der einstige Generalkommandant der Venezianer Giulio Cesare da Varano von den Borgia gefangen genommen wurde; auch er wurde später in Rom ermordet.
Als Nächstes richtete sich Alexanders Begehren auf Bologna. Der venezianische Stadtschreiber jener Zeit, Marino Sanudo , berichtete, der Papst sei so versessen auf Bologna, dass er notfalls seine Mitra verkaufen würde, um die Stadt zu besitzen.
Bologna war zwar de jure päpstliches Lehen und gehörte zum Kirchenstaat, aber Giovanni II. Bentivoglio , der Herrscher Bolognas, stand unter dem besonderen Schutz des französischen Königs.
Die Feinde der Borgia versuchten, den König, der sich im Sommer zur Ordnung seiner Angelegenheiten in der Lombardei aufhielt, auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.
Cesare aber erreichte in einer persönlichen Unterredung mit dem König ein neuerliches Bündnis, indem Cesare die Eroberung Arezzos einer Eigenmächtigkeit seines Feldherren Vitellozzo Vitelli anlastete und der König die Unterstützung des Papstes im Kampf um Neapel begehrte.
Damit aber verloren die Bentivoglio Giovanni II. Bentivoglio und die Orsini ihren Schutzherrn. Die meisten glaubten aber, Cesare habe die Gunst des französischen Herrschers endgültig verspielt, und schmiedeten Rachepläne.
Oktober trafen sich in der Nähe des Trasimenischen Sees nicht nur Vertreter der Orsini, sondern auch der besagte Vitelli sowie die Herrscher von Perugia und ein Vertreter der Bentivoglio; sogar der Herr von Siena schickte einen Vertreter.
Die Verbündeten machten sich rasch ans Werk. Ascanio Sforza, for example, had had a terrible row with him just a few days before the murder homicide.
No conclusive explanation was ever reached,  and it may be that the crime was simply as a result of one of the Duke's sexual liaisons.
It is often alleged, even by some historians, that Alexander and his son, Cesare, poisoned Cardinal Adriano Castellesi , but this is unlikely.
There is no evidence that the Borgias resorted to poisoning, judicial murder, or extortion to fund their schemes and the defense of the Papal States.
The only contemporary accusations of poisoning were from some of the servants of the Borgias, extracted under torture by Alexander's bitter enemy Della Rovere, who succeeded him as Pope Julius II.
The debased state of the curia was a major scandal. Opponents, such as the powerful demagogic Florentine friar Girolamo Savonarola , launched invectives against papal corruption and appealed for a general council to confront the papal abuses.
Alexander is reported to have been reduced to laughter when Savonarola's denunciations were related to him. Nevertheless, he appointed Sebastian Maggi to investigate the friar, and he responded on 16 October We are displeased at the disturbed state of affairs in Florence, the more so in that it owes its origin to your preaching.
For you predict the future and publicly declare that you do so by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit when you should be reprehending vice and praising virtue Prophecies like these should not be made when your charge is to forward peace and concord.
Moreover, these are not the time for such teachings, calculated as they are to produce discord even in times of peace let alone in times of trouble.
Since, however, we have been most happy to learn from certain cardinals and from your letter that you are ready to submit yourself to the reproofs of the Church, as becomes a Christian and a religious, we are beginning to think that what you have done has not been done with an evil motive, but from a certain simple-mindedness and a zeal, however misguided, for the Lord's vineyard.
Our duty, however, prescribes that we order you, under holy obedience, to cease from public and private preaching until you are able to come to our presence, not under armed escort as is your present habit, but safely, quietly and modestly as becomes a religious, or until we make different arrangements.
If you obey, as we hope you will, we for the time being suspend the operation of our former Brief so that you may live in peace in accordance with the dictates of your conscience.
The hostility of Savonarola seems to have been political rather than personal, and the friar sent a touching letter of condolence to the Pope on the death of the Duke of Gandia; "Faith, most Holy Father, is the one and true source of peace and consolation Faith alone brings consolation from a far-off country.
The prominent Italian families looked down on the Spanish Borgia family, and they resented their power, which they sought for themselves. This is, at least partially, why both Pope Callixtus III and Pope Alexander VI gave powers to family members whom they could trust.
In these circumstances, Alexander, feeling more than ever that he could rely only on his own kin, turned his thoughts to further family aggrandizement.
He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage to Giovanni Sforza , who had responded to the suggestion that he was impotent with the unsubstantiated counter-claim that Alexander and Cesare indulged in incestuous relations with Lucrezia, in Alexander and the new French king Louis XII entered a secret agreement; in exchange for a bull of divorce between the king and Joan of France so he could marry Anne of Brittany and making Georges d'Amboise the king's chief advisor the cardinal of Rouen , Cesare was given the duchy of Valentinois chosen because it was consistent with his nickname, Valentino , military assistance to help him subjugate the feudal princelings of papal Romagna,  and a princess bride, Charlotte of Albret from the Kingdom of Navarre.
Alexander hoped that Louis XII's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles VIII had been. In spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January and was joined by Venice.
By autumn Louis XII was in Italy expelling Lodovico Sforza from Milan. With French success seemingly assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes.
Cesare, empowered by the support of the French, began to attack the turbulent cities one by one in his capacity as nominated gonfaloniere standard bearer of the church.
But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in In the Jubilee year , Alexander ushered in the custom of opening a holy door on Christmas Eve and closing it on Christmas Day the following year.
After consulting with his Master of Ceremonies, Johann Burchard , Pope Alexander VI opened the first holy door in St.
Peter's Basilica on Christmas Eve , and papal representatives opened the doors in the other three patriarchal basilicas. For this, Pope Alexander had a new opening created in the portico of St.
Peter's and commissioned a marble door. This door lasted until , when another door was installed in the new basilica. In a ceremony similar to today's, Alexander was carried in the sedia gestatoria to St.
He and his assistants, bearing candles, processed to the holy door, as the choir chanted Psalm — The Pope knocked on the door three times, workers moved it from the inside, and everyone then crossed the threshold to enter into a period of penance and reconciliation.
Thus, Pope Alexander formalized the rite and began a longstanding tradition that is still in practice. Similar ceremonies were held at the other three basilicas.
Alexander instituted a special rite for the closing of a holy door, as well. On the Feast of the Epiphany in , two cardinals began to seal the holy door with two bricks, one silver and one gold.
Sampietrini basilica workers [Note 9] completed the seal, placing specially-minted coins and medals inside the wall. While the enterprising explorers of Spain imposed a form of slavery called " encomienda " on the indigenous peoples they met in the New World,  some popes had spoken out against the practice of slavery.
In , Pope Eugene IV had issued an attack on slavery in the Canary Islands in his papal bull Sicut Dudum , which included the excommunication of all those who engaged in the slave trade with native chiefs there.
A form of indentured servitude was allowed, being similar to a peasant's duty to his liege lord in Europe.
In the wake of Columbus 's landing in the New World, Pope Alexander was asked by the Spanish monarchy to confirm their ownership of these newly found lands.
Thornberry asserts that Inter Caetera was applied in the Requerimiento which was read to American Indians who could not understand the colonisers' language before hostilities against them began.
They were given the option to accept the authority of the Pope and Spanish crown or face being attacked and subjugated.
This was followed by a similar appeal in by the Parliament of World Religions. A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy by the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri.
At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked bleak for the house of Borgia. But a promise of French help quickly forced the confederates to come to terms.
Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death 31 December When Alexander VI heard the news, he lured Cardinal Orsini to the Vatican and cast him into a dungeon, where he died.
His goods were confiscated and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Alexander's son Goffredo Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles.
Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated and the Borgias' power increased.
Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Goffredo in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to his father's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.
The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and the Pope was forever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised the most advantageous terms at any moment.
He offered to help Louis XII on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena , Pisa and Bologna.
Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom passion lasted longest was Vannozza Giovanna dei Cattanei , born in , and wife of three successive husbands.
The connection began in , and she had four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Cesare born , Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia commonly known as Juan, born , Lucrezia born , and Gioffre Goffredo in Italian, born or For a period of time, before legitimizing his children after becoming Pope, Rodrigo pretended that his four children with Vannozza were his niece and nephews and that they were fathered by Vannozza's husbands.
Before his elevation to the papacy, Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.
Her place in his affections was filled, according to some, by the beautiful Giulia Farnese " Giulia la Bella " , wife of an Orsini.
However, he still very dearly loved Vannozza, in a way he considered "spiritual", and his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career.
He lavished vast sums on them and lauded them with every honor. Vannozza lived in the Palace of a late Cardinal, or in a large, palatial villa.
The children lived between their mother's home and the Papal Palace itself. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia apparently lived with Giulia at a point.
Giovanni Borgia , 2nd Duke of Gandia. Portrait of Gentleman Cesare Borgia. Presumed portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by Bartolomeo Veneto.
Gioffre Borgia — Prince of Squillace. Four other children, Girolama, Isabella, Pedro-Luiz , and Bernardo, were of uncertain maternal parentage.
His daughter Isabella was the great-great-grandmother of Pope Innocent X , who was therefore descended in a direct line from Alexander.
A daughter, Laura, was born to his mistress, Giulia Farnese ; paternity was officially attributed to Orsino Orsini Farnese's husband.
Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. Alexander VI kneeling in front of the Madonna , said to be a likeness of Giulia Farnese.
Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later.
Cesare, who "lay in bed, his skin peeling and his face suffused to a violet colour"  as a consequence of certain drastic measures to save him, eventually recovered; but the aged Pontiff apparently had little chance.
Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age . Saturday, 12 August , the Pope fell ill in the morning.
After the hour of vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. On 15 August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened.
On Thursday, 17 August, at nine o'clock in the forenoon he took medicine. On Friday, the 18th, between nine and ten o'clock he confessed to the Bishop Gamboa of Carignola, who then read Mass to him.
After his Communion he gave the Eucharist to the Pope who was sitting in bed. Then he ended the Mass at which were present five cardinals, Serra, Juan and Francesco Borgia, Casanova and Loris.
The Pope told them that he felt very bad. At the hour of vespers after Gamboa had given him Extreme Unction, he died. As for his true faults, known only to his confessor, Pope Alexander VI apparently died genuinely repentant.
When at last the pope was suffering from a very severe sickness, he spontaneously requested, one after another, each of the last sacraments.
He first made a very careful confession of his sins, with a contrite heart, and was affected even to the shedding of tears, I am told; then he received in Communion the most Sacred Body and Extreme Unction was administered to him.
The interregnum witnessed again the ancient "tradition" of violence and rioting. The next day the body was exhibited to the people and clergy of Rome, but was covered by an "old tapestry" "antiquo tapete" , having become greatly disfigured by rapid decomposition.
According to Raphael Volterrano : "It was a revolting scene to look at that deformed, blackened corpse, prodigiously swelled, and exhaling an infectious smell; his lips and nose were covered with brown drivel, his mouth was opened very widely, and his tongue, inflated by poison, It has been suggested that, having taken into account the unusual level of decomposition, Alexander VI was accidentally poisoned to death by his son, Cesare, with cantarella which had been prepared to eliminate Cardinal Adriano , although some commentaries doubt these stories and attribute the Pope's death to malaria , then prevalent in Rome, or to another such pestilence.
After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in the less well-known Spanish national church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli.
Before the death of Alexander VI, Rome was filled with political instability. Following the death of Alexander VI, Julius II said on the day of his election: "I will not live in the same rooms as the Borgias lived.
He desecrated the Holy Church as none before. Sometimes overlooked is the fact that Alexander VI set about reforms of the increasingly irresponsible Curia.
He put together a group of his most pious cardinals in order to move the process along. Planned reforms included new rules on the sale of Church property, the limiting of cardinals to one bishopric, and stricter moral codes for clergy.
Alexander VI was known for his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.
Raphael , Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him. He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi performed in his apartments.
In addition to the arts, Alexander VI also encouraged the development of education. In , he issued a papal bull at the request of William Elphinstone , Bishop of Aberdeen, and King James IV of Scotland , founding King's College, Aberdeen.
Alexander VI also, in , approved the University of Valencia. Alexander VI, who was allegedly a marrano according to a black legend of papal rival Giuliano della Rovere , distinguished himself by his relatively benign treatment of Jews.
After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain , some 9, impoverished Iberian Jews arrived at the borders of the Papal States. Alexander welcomed them into Rome, declaring that they were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges".
He similarly allowed the immigration of Jews expelled from Portugal in and from Provence in It has been noted that the alleged misdeeds of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other Renaissance princes, with the one exception being his position in the Church.
As De Maistre said in his work Du Pape , "The latter are forgiven nothing, because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI.
Epitaphium Alexandri Papae Cui tranquilla quies odio, cui proelia cordi et rixa et caedes seditioque fuit, mortuus hac recubat populis gaudentibus urna pastor Alexander, maxima Roma, tuus.
Vos, Erebi proceres, vos caeli claudite portas atque Animam vestris hanc prohibete locis. In Styga nam veniens pacem turbabit Averni, committet superos, si petat astra poli.
Epitaph to Pope Alexander Who sacrificed quiet to hatred, with a warrior heart, who did not stop at quarrels, struggles and slaughters, is lying here in the coffin for all people to rejoice, thy supreme pontiff Alexander, oh, capital Rome.
Ye prelates of Erebus and Heaven, close your doors and prohibit the Soul from entering your sites. He would disrupt the peace of Styx and disturb Avernus , and vanquish the Saints, if he enters the sphere of stars.
Despite Julius II 's hostility, the Roman barons and Romagna vicars were never again to be the same problem for the papacy and Julius' successes owe much to the foundations laid by the Borgias.
Alexander Lee argues that the crimes attributed to the Borgias were exaggerated by contemporaries because they were outsiders expanding their holdings at the expense of the Italians, that they were Spaniards when it was felt that Spain had too much control on the Italian peninsula, and that after the death of Alexander the family lost its influence and therefore any incentive for anyone to defend them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rodrigo Borgia. Pope of the Catholic Church — For the Spanish nobleperson, see Rodrigo de Borja Spanish noble.
Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere — Administrator of Girona — Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata — Administrator of Valencia — Cardinal-Bishop of Albano — Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina — Administrator of Cartagena — Administrator of Mallorca — Administrator of Eger — Archbishop of Valencia Main article: Papal conclave, Main article: Italian War of — This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page.
March Ancestors of Pope Alexander VI Gonzalo Gil de Borja 8. Rodrigo de Borja 4. Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Fennolet 9. Sabina Anglesola 2.
Pope Alexander VI Domingo I de Borja 6. Juan Domingo de Borja y Doncel , Lord of Torre de Canals Caterina Doncel 3.
Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles 7. This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.
September Biography portal Catholicism portal. This article contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry.
Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote.
Some, including Christopher Hibbert, recognize up to six more: Girolama or Jeronima , Isabella, Pier Luigi or Pedro Luis , Bernardo, Ottaviano, and Laura.
Having lived nearly half a century in Rome, and having been for almost the whole of his life part of the ecclesiastical organization, he had a profound respect for all the interests of the Catholic Church, a respect greater than for his own life.
He was prepared to compromise upon all purely human questions, but inflexible upon whatever concerned the rights of religion.
He was the type of 'political priest', cautious and slow to act in the fact [sic] of the unforeseen, but brave to the point of heroism in defence of the great Institution whose direction had been entrusted to him.
While still a teenager, Alexander was granted a title and income from the Roman Catholic Church by his uncle Alonso later Pope Calixtus III.
He also issued bulls that led to the Treaty of Tordesillas , theoretically dividing the New World into Spanish and Portuguese spheres.
Contemporary chroniclers suggested that he may have been poisoned, either intentionally or accidentally. After Alexander's death, Cesare dispatched a gang of dagger-wielding henchmen to loot the papal residence.
Alexander's rapidly decomposing body was shuttled around Rome before a team of workers pummeled his corpse into a too-small coffin.
Rodrigo was born into the Spanish branch of the prominent and powerful Borgia family. His uncle Alonso de Borgia, bishop of Valencia later cardinal , supervised his education and endowed him with ecclesiastical benefices while still in his teens.
Rodrigo studied law at Bologna , and on February 22, , he was created a cardinal by his uncle, now Pope Calixtus III. As vice chancellor of the Roman Catholic Church , Rodrigo amassed enormous wealth and, despite a severe rebuke from Pope Pius II , lived as a Renaissance prince.
He patronized the arts and fathered a number of children for whom he provided livings, mainly in Spain. Despite the shadow of simony that surrounded the disposal of his benefices among the papal electors, Rodrigo emerged from a tumultuous conclave on the night of August 10—11, , as Pope Alexander VI and received the acclaim of the Roman populace.
He embarked upon a reform of papal finances and a vigorous pursuit of the war against the Ottoman Turks.
His position was menaced by the French king Charles VIII , who invaded Italy in to vindicate his claim to the Kingdom of Naples. Charles, at the instigation of a rival cardinal of the influential della Rovere family, threatened the pope with deposition and the convocation of a reform council.
Politically isolated, Alexander sought assistance from the Turkish sovereign , Bayezid II. In September Alexander created his teenaged son Cesare a cardinal, along with Alessandro Farnese the brother of the papal favourite Giulia la Bella and the future pope Paul III.
In the course of his pontificate Alexander appointed 47 cardinals to further his complicated dynastic, ecclesiastical, and political policies.Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo Borgia, held a controversial status in life and in death. Even today, people still wonder, "How did Pope Alexander VI die, given the mysterious circumstances of the days before his death?". Rodrigo de Borja was born in Xàtiva, near Valencia, in Spain on January 1, In Italian, he is known as Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia; or more commonly as Pope Alexander VI, the successor to Innocent VIII. Rodrigo’s mother was Isabella Borja and his father was Joffre Llançol. Rodrigo Borgia better known as Pope Alexander VI is the pope and father to four children: Cesare Borgia, Juan Borgia, Joffre Borgia, and Lucrezia Borgia. He had two mistresses Vanozza Dei Cattenei and Giulia Farnese. Rodrigo Borgia (–) was born in Xàtiva, also in the Kingdom of Valencia, to Isabel de Borja i Cavanilles and Jofré Llançol i Escrivà. He studied law at Bologna and was appointed as cardinal by his uncle, Alfons Borgia, Pope Callixtus III. He was elected Pope in , taking the regnal name Alexander VI. The Borgias are the most infamous family of Renaissance Italy, and their history normally hinges around four key individuals: Pope Calixtus III, his nephew Pope Alexander IV, his son Cesare, and his daughter Lucrezia. Thanks to the actions of the middle pair, the family name is associated with greed, power, lust, and murder. Hartmann Schedel bietet in seiner Weltchronik von eine positive Bewertung This Is Us Wie Stirbt Jack Alexanders Wahl. Innerhalb eines Jahres nach seiner Wahl zum Papst ernannte Alexander VI. Während Cesare sich allmählich erholte, starb sein Vater am Abend des Communitas perfecta Councils Ecumenism Four marks Catholic Infallibility Corporis Christi One true church People of God Three states Subsistit in In canon Frau Holle Märchen Film. The rest of the Orsini clan still held out, defeating the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo da Montefeltro Sturm Der Liebe Folge 88, Duke of Urbino and Giovanni BorgiaDuke of Gandia, at Soriano January Christopher Hibbert - The Borgias and Their Enemies: Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am Alexander VI. (ursprünglich valencianisch Roderic Llançol i de Borja, italienisch Rodrigo Borgia; * 1. Januar in Xàtiva bei València; † August in. Der von Machiavelli beschriebene Cesare Borgia und Lucrezia Borgia, außereheliche Kinder des letzteren Papstes, sind zwei weitere bekannte Mitglieder der. Rodrigo Borgia war der Großmeister des Templerordens während der Renaissance in Italien. Er war.