Es ist erst der zweite Start einer bemannten SpaceX-Rakete des Unternehmers Elon Musk. An Bord der „Crew Dragon“ sind drei Nasa-. Am Donnerstag bringt eine neue Version der Sojusrakete drei Astronauten zur ISS, trotz Corona-Pandemie. Die Russen Anatoly Ivanishin und Ivan Vagner und. Nach knapp neunjähriger Pause sind erstmals wieder Astronauten von den USA aus zur Internationalen Raumstation ISS gestartet: Robert Behnken und.
SpaceX: So verlief die Planung zum Start zur ISSNasa nur noch Kunde: SpaceX fliegt zur ISS. Die Nasa ist bei diesem bemannten Weltraumflug nur noch Kunde. Für den Start und die Mission ist. Raumfahrt:SpaceX-Start zur ISS geglückt. Mit dem Flug übernimmt Elon Musks Unternehmen SpaceX den Transport von Stammbesatzungen. Dezember, Start der Galileo-Satelliten 27 und 28 mit Ariane 6 oder Sojus von Kourou. Dezember, Start Progress 77P von Baikonur (Versorgung ISS).
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To keep the internal temperature within workable limits, a passive thermal control system PTCS is made of external surface materials, insulation such as MLI, and heat pipes.
If the PTCS cannot keep up with the heat load, an External Active Thermal Control System EATCS maintains the temperature. The EATCS consists of an internal, non-toxic, water coolant loop used to cool and dehumidify the atmosphere, which transfers collected heat into an external liquid ammonia loop.
From the heat exchangers, ammonia is pumped into external radiators that emit heat as infrared radiation, then back to the station.
Radio communications provide telemetry and scientific data links between the station and mission control centres. Radio links are also used during rendezvous and docking procedures and for audio and video communication between crew members, flight controllers and family members.
As a result, the ISS is equipped with internal and external communication systems used for different purposes. The Russian Orbital Segment communicates directly with the ground via the Lira antenna mounted to Zvezda.
The US Orbital Segment USOS makes use of two separate radio links mounted in the Z1 truss structure: the S band audio and K u band audio, video and data systems.
These transmissions are routed via the United States Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TDRSS in geostationary orbit , allowing for almost continuous real-time communications with Christopher C.
Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center MCC-H in Houston. UHF radio is used by astronauts and cosmonauts conducting EVAs and other spacecraft that dock to or undock from the station.
The laptops have run Windows 95 , Windows , Windows XP , Windows 7 , Windows 10 and Linux operating systems. Heat generated by the laptops does not rise but stagnates around the laptop, so additional forced ventilation is required.
Laptops aboard the ISS are connected to the station's wireless LAN via Wi-Fi and ethernet, which connects to the ground via K u band.
The operating system used for key station functions is the Debian Linux distribution. In , an SG Cloud Computer was launched to the ISS as part of OA-7 mission.
Each permanent crew is given an expedition number. Expeditions run up to six months, from launch until undocking, an 'increment' covers the same time period, but includes cargo ships and all activities.
Expeditions 1 to 6 consisted of three-person crews. Expeditions 7 to 12 were reduced to the safe minimum of two following the destruction of the NASA Shuttle Columbia.
From Expedition 13 the crew gradually increased to six around Travellers who pay for their own passage into space are termed spaceflight participants by Roscosmos and NASA, and are sometimes referred to as "space tourists", a term they generally dislike.
When professional crews change over in numbers not divisible by the three seats in a Soyuz, and a short-stay crewmember is not sent, the spare seat is sold by MirCorp through Space Adventures.
When the Space Shuttle was retired in , and the station's crew size was reduced to six, space tourism was halted, as the partners relied on Russian transport seats for access to the station.
Soyuz flight schedules increase after , allowing five Soyuz flights 15 seats with only two expeditions 12 seats required.
ESA and NASA criticised private spaceflight at the beginning of the ISS, and NASA initially resisted training Dennis Tito , the first person to pay for his own passage to the ISS.
Anousheh Ansari became the first Iranian in space and the first self-funded woman to fly to the station. Officials reported that her education and experience make her much more than a tourist, and her performance in training had been "excellent.
She did Russian and European studies involving medicine and microbiology during her day stay. The documentary Space Tourists follows her journey to the station, where she fulfilled "an age-old dream of man: to leave our planet as a "normal person" and travel into outer space.
In , spaceflight participant Richard Garriott placed a geocache aboard the ISS during his flight.
A wide variety of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft have supported the station's activities. Flights to the ISS include 37 Space Shuttle missions, 75 Progress resupply spacecraft including the modified M-MIM2 and M-SO1 module transports , 59 crewed Soyuz spacecraft, 5 ATVs, 9 Japanese HTVs , 20 SpaceX Dragon and 13 Cygnus missions.
There are currently 8 available docking ports for visiting spacecrafts. The United States sent people, Russia sent 49, nine were Japanese, eight were Canadian, five were Italian, four were French, three were German, and there were one each from Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Great Britain, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden and the United Arab Emirates.
Uncrewed spaceflights to the International Space Station ISS are made primarily to deliver cargo, however several Russian modules have also docked to the outpost following uncrewed launches.
Resupply missions typically use the Russian Progress spacecraft, European ATVs, Japanese Kounotori vehicles, and the American Dragon and Cygnus spacecraft.
The primary docking system for Progress spacecraft is the automated Kurs system, with the manual TORU system as a backup.
ATVs also use Kurs, however they are not equipped with TORU. Progress and ATV can remain docked for up to six months. Under CRS phase 2, Cargo Dragon will dock autonomously at IDA-2 or 3 as the case may be.
As of December , Progress spacecraft have flown most of the uncrewed missions to the ISS. All Russian spacecraft and self-propelled modules are able to rendezvous and dock to the space station without human intervention using the Kurs radar docking system from over kilometres away.
The European ATV uses star sensors and GPS to determine its intercept course. When it catches up it uses laser equipment to optically recognise Zvezda , along with the Kurs system for redundancy.
Crew supervise these craft, but do not intervene except to send abort commands in emergencies. Progress and ATV supply craft can remain at the ISS for six months,   allowing great flexibility in crew time for loading and unloading of supplies and trash.
From the initial station programs, the Russians pursued an automated docking methodology that used the crew in override or monitoring roles.
Although the initial development costs were high, the system has become very reliable with standardisations that provide significant cost benefits in repetitive operations.
Soyuz spacecraft used for crew rotation also serve as lifeboats for emergency evacuation; they are replaced every six months and were used after the Columbia disaster to return stranded crew from the ISS.
Other vehicles berth instead of docking. The Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle parks itself in progressively closer orbits to the station, and then awaits 'approach' commands from the crew, until it is close enough for a robotic arm to grapple and berth the vehicle to the USOS.
Berthed craft can transfer International Standard Payload Racks. Japanese spacecraft berth for one to two months.
From 26 February to 7 March four of the governmental partners United States, ESA, Japan and Russia had their spacecraft NASA Shuttle, ATV, HTV, Progress and Soyuz docked at the ISS, the only time this has happened to date.
Prior to a ship's docking to the ISS, navigation and attitude control GNC is handed over to the ground control of the ship's country of origin. GNC is set to allow the station to drift in space, rather than fire its thrusters or turn using gyroscopes.
The solar panels of the station are turned edge-on to the incoming ships, so residue from its thrusters does not damage the cells.
Before its retirement, Shuttle launches were often given priority over Soyuz, with occasional priority given to Soyuz arrivals carrying crew and time-critical cargoes, such as biological experiment materials.
Orbital Replacement Units ORUs are spare parts that can be readily replaced when a unit either passes its design life or fails. Examples of ORUs are pumps, storage tanks, controller boxes, antennas, and battery units.
Some units can be replaced using robotic arms. Most are stored outside the station, either on small pallets called ExPRESS Logistics Carriers ELCs or share larger platforms called External Stowage Platforms which also hold science experiments.
Both kinds of pallets provide electricity for many parts that could be damaged by the cold of space and require heating. The larger logistics carriers also have local area network LAN connections for telemetry to connect experiments.
A heavy emphasis on stocking the USOS with ORU's occurred around , before the end of the NASA shuttle programme, as its commercial replacements, Cygnus and Dragon, carry one tenth to one quarter the payload.
Unexpected problems and failures have impacted the station's assembly time-line and work schedules leading to periods of reduced capabilities and, in some cases, could have forced abandonment of the station for safety reasons.
Serious problems include an air leak from the USOS in ,  the venting of fumes from an Elektron oxygen generator in ,  and the failure of the computers in the ROS in during STS that left the station without thruster, Elektron , Vozdukh and other environmental control system operations.
In the latter case, the root cause was found to be condensation inside electrical connectors leading to a short circuit.
During STS in and following the relocation of the P6 truss and solar arrays, it was noted during the solar array had torn and was not deploying properly.
Extra precautions were taken to reduce the risk of electric shock, as the repairs were carried out with the solar array exposed to sunlight.
Excessive vibration and high-current spikes in the array drive motor were noted, resulting in a decision to substantially curtail motion of the starboard SARJ until the cause was understood.
Inspections during EVAs on STS and STS showed extensive contamination from metallic shavings and debris in the large drive gear and confirmed damage to the large metallic bearing surfaces, so the joint was locked to prevent further damage.
In September , damage to the S1 radiator was first noticed in Soyuz imagery. The problem was initially not thought to be serious.
On 15 May the damaged radiator panel's ammonia tubing was mechanically shut off from the rest of the cooling system by the computer-controlled closure of a valve.
The same valve was then used to vent the ammonia from the damaged panel, eliminating the possibility of an ammonia leak. In the early hours of 1 August , a failure in cooling Loop A starboard side , one of two external cooling loops, left the station with only half of its normal cooling capacity and zero redundancy in some systems.
Several subsystems, including two of the four CMGs, were shut down. Planned operations on the ISS were interrupted through a series of EVAs to address the cooling system issue.
A first EVA on 7 August , to replace the failed pump module, was not fully completed because of an ammonia leak in one of four quick-disconnects.
A second EVA on 11 August successfully removed the failed pump module. The USOS's cooling system is largely built by the US company Boeing,  which is also the manufacturer of the failed pump.
The four Main Bus Switching Units MBSUs, located in the S0 truss , control the routing of power from the four solar array wings to the rest of the ISS.
Each MBSU has two power channels that feed V DC from the arrays to two DC-to-DC power converters DDCUs that supply the V power used in the station. In late MBSU-1 ceased responding to commands or sending data confirming its health.
While still routing power correctly, it was scheduled to be swapped out at the next available EVA. A spare MBSU was already on board, but a 30 August EVA failed to be completed when a bolt being tightened to finish installation of the spare unit jammed before the electrical connection was secured.
On 24 December , astronauts installed a new ammonia pump for the station's cooling system. The faulty cooling system had failed earlier in the month, halting many of the station's science experiments.
Astronauts had to brave a "mini blizzard" of ammonia while installing the new pump. It was only the second Christmas Eve spacewalk in NASA history.
The components of the ISS are operated and monitored by their respective space agencies at mission control centres across the globe, including RKA Mission Control Center , ATV Control Centre , JEM Control Center and HTV Control Center at Tsukuba Space Center , Christopher C.
Mission Control Center , Payload Operations and Integration Center , Columbus Control Center and Mobile Servicing System Control.
A typical day for the crew begins with a wake-up at , followed by post-sleep activities and a morning inspection of the station. The crew then eats breakfast and takes part in a daily planning conference with Mission Control before starting work at around The first scheduled exercise of the day follows, after which the crew continues work until Following a one-hour lunch break, the afternoon consists of more exercise and work before the crew carries out its pre-sleep activities beginning at , including dinner and a crew conference.
The scheduled sleep period begins at In general, the crew works ten hours per day on a weekday, and five hours on Saturdays, with the rest of the time their own for relaxation or work catch-up.
The time zone used aboard the ISS is Coordinated Universal Time UTC. The windows are covered at night hours to give the impression of darkness because the station experiences 16 sunrises and sunsets per day.
During visiting Space Shuttle missions, the ISS crew mostly follows the shuttle's Mission Elapsed Time MET , which is a flexible time zone based on the launch time of the Space Shuttle mission.
The station provides crew quarters for each member of the expedition's crew, with two 'sleep stations' in the Zvezda and four more installed in Harmony.
The ROS crew quarters include a small window, but provide less ventilation and sound proofing. A crew member can sleep in a crew quarter in a tethered sleeping bag, listen to music, use a laptop, and store personal items in a large drawer or in nets attached to the module's walls.
The module also provides a reading lamp, a shelf and a desktop. It is possible to sleep floating freely through the station, but this is generally avoided because of the possibility of bumping into sensitive equipment.
On the USOS, most of the food aboard is vacuum sealed in plastic bags; cans are rare because they are heavy and expensive to transport. Preserved food is not highly regarded by the crew and taste is reduced in microgravity,  so efforts are taken to make the food more palatable, including using more spices than in regular cooking.
The crew looks forward to the arrival of any ships from Earth as they bring fresh fruit and vegetables. Care is taken that foods do not create crumbs, and liquid condiments are preferred over solid to avoid contaminating station equipment.
Each crew member has individual food packages and cooks them using the on-board galley. The galley features two food warmers, a refrigerator added in November , and a water dispenser that provides both heated and unheated water.
Any food that floats away, including crumbs, must be collected to prevent it from clogging the station's air filters and other equipment.
Crews are also provided with rinseless shampoo and edible toothpaste to save water. There are two space toilets on the ISS, both of Russian design, located in Zvezda and Tranquility.
Astronauts first fasten themselves to the toilet seat, which is equipped with spring-loaded restraining bars to ensure a good seal.
Solid waste is collected in individual bags which are stored in an aluminium container. Full containers are transferred to Progress spacecraft for disposal.
The diverted urine is collected and transferred to the Water Recovery System, where it is recycled into drinking water. On 12 April , NASA reported medical results from the Astronaut Twin Study.
Astronaut Scott Kelly spent a year in space on the ISS, while his twin spent the year on Earth. Several long-lasting changes were observed, including those related to alterations in DNA and cognition , when one twin was compared with the other.
In November , researchers reported that astronauts experienced serious blood flow and clot problems while on board the ISS, based on a six-month study of 11 healthy astronauts.
The results may influence long-term spaceflight, including a mission to the planet Mars, according to the researchers. The ISS is partially protected from the space environment by Earth's magnetic field.
Solar flares are still a hazard to the crew, who may receive only a few minutes warning. In , during the initial "proton storm" of an X-3 class solar flare, the crew of Expedition 10 took shelter in a more heavily shielded part of the ROS designed for this purpose.
Subatomic charged particles, primarily protons from cosmic rays and solar wind, are normally absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. When they interact in sufficient quantity, their effect is visible to the naked eye in a phenomenon called an aurora.
Outside Earth's atmosphere, ISS crews are exposed to approximately one millisievert each day about a year's worth of natural exposure on Earth , resulting in a higher risk of cancer.
Radiation can penetrate living tissue and damage the DNA and chromosomes of lymphocytes ; being central to the immune system , any damage to these cells could contribute to the lower immunity experienced by astronauts.
Radiation has also been linked to a higher incidence of cataracts in astronauts. Protective shielding and medications may lower the risks to an acceptable level.
Radiation levels on the ISS are about five times greater than those experienced by airline passengers and crew, as Earth's electromagnetic field provides almost the same level of protection against solar and other types of radiation in low Earth orbit as in the stratosphere.
For example, on a hour flight, an airline passenger would experience 0. Additionally, airline passengers experience this level of radiation for a few hours of flight, while the ISS crew are exposed for their whole stay on board the station.
There is considerable evidence that psychosocial stressors are among the most important impediments to optimal crew morale and performance.
NASA's interest in psychological stress caused by space travel, initially studied when their crewed missions began, was rekindled when astronauts joined cosmonauts on the Russian space station Mir.
Common sources of stress in early US missions included maintaining high performance under public scrutiny and isolation from peers and family.
The latter is still often a cause of stress on the ISS, such as when the mother of NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani died in a car accident, and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.
A study of the longest spaceflight concluded that the first three weeks are a critical period where attention is adversely affected because of the demand to adjust to the extreme change of environment.
The ISS working environment includes further stress caused by living and working in cramped conditions with people from very different cultures who speak a different language.
First-generation space stations had crews who spoke a single language; second- and third-generation stations have crew from many cultures who speak many languages.
Astronauts must speak English and Russian , and knowing additional languages is even better. Due to the lack of gravity, confusion often occurs.
Even though there is no up and down in space, some crew members feel like they are oriented upside down.
They may also have difficulty measuring distances. This can cause problems like getting lost inside the space station, pulling switches in the wrong direction or misjudging the speed of an approaching vehicle during docking.
The physiological effects of long-term weightlessness include muscle atrophy , deterioration of the skeleton osteopenia , fluid redistribution, a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system.
Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, and puffiness of the face. Sleep is regularly disturbed on the ISS because of mission demands, such as incoming or departing ships.
Sound levels in the station are unavoidably high. The atmosphere is unable to thermosiphon naturally, so fans are required at all times to process the air which would stagnate in the freefall zero-G environment.
To prevent some of the adverse effects on the body, the station is equipped with: two TVIS treadmills including the COLBERT ; the ARED Advanced Resistive Exercise Device , which enables various weightlifting exercises that add muscle without raising or compensating for the astronauts' reduced bone density;  and a stationary bicycle.
Each astronaut spends at least two hours per day exercising on the equipment. Hazardous moulds that can foul air and water filters may develop aboard space stations.
They can produce acids that degrade metal, glass, and rubber. They can also be harmful to the crew's health.
Microbiological hazards have led to a development of the LOCAD-PTS which identifies common bacteria and moulds faster than standard methods of culturing , which may require a sample to be sent back to Earth.
Contamination on space stations can be prevented by reduced humidity, and by using paint that contains mould-killing chemicals, as well as the use of antiseptic solutions.
All materials used in the ISS are tested for resistance against fungi. In April , NASA reported that a comprehensive study had been conducted into the microorganisms and fungi present on the ISS.
The results may be useful in improving the health and safety conditions for astronauts. Space flight is not inherently quiet, with noise levels exceeding acoustic standards as far back as the Apollo missions.
Specifically, these goals have been the primary focus of the ISS Multilateral Medical Operations Panel MMOP Acoustics Subgroup since the first days of ISS assembly and operations.
When compared to terrestrial environments, the noise levels incurred by astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS may seem insignificant and typically occur at levels that would not be of major concern to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration — rarely reaching 85 dBA.
But crew members are exposed to these levels 24 hours a day, seven days a week, with current missions averaging six months in duration. These levels of noise also impose risks to crew health and performance in the form of sleep interference and communication, as well as reduced alarm audibility.
Over the 19 plus year history of the ISS, significant efforts have been put forth to limit and reduce noise levels on the ISS.
During design and pre-flight activities, members of the Acoustic Subgroup have written acoustic limits and verification requirements, consulted to design and choose quietest available payloads, and then conducted acoustic verification tests prior to launch.
The acoustic environment on ISS changed when additional modules were added during its construction, and as additional spacecraft arrive at the ISS.
The Acoustics Subgroup has responded to this dynamic operations schedule by successfully designing and employing acoustic covers, absorptive materials, noise barriers , and vibration isolators to reduce noise levels.
Moreover, when pumps, fans, and ventilation systems age and show increased noise levels, this Acoustics Subgroup has guided ISS managers to replace the older, noisier instruments with quiet fan and pump technologies, significantly reducing ambient noise levels.
NASA has adopted most-conservative damage risk criteria based on recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the World Health Organization , in order to protect all crew members.
The MMOP Acoustics Subgroup has adjusted its approach to managing noise risks in this unique environment by applying, or modifying, terrestrial approaches for hearing loss prevention to set these conservative limits.
One innovative approach has been NASA's Noise Exposure Estimation Tool NEET , in which noise exposures are calculated in a task-based approach to determine the need for hearing protection devices HPDs.
Guidance for use of HPDs, either mandatory use or recommended, is then documented in the Noise Hazard Inventory, and posted for crew reference during their missions.
The Acoustics Subgroup also tracks spacecraft noise exceedances, applies engineering controls , and recommends hearing protective devices to reduce crew noise exposures.
Finally, hearing thresholds are monitored on-orbit, during missions. There have been no persistent mission-related hearing threshold shifts among US Orbital Segment crewmembers JAXA, CSA, ESA, NASA during what is approaching 20 years of ISS mission operations, or nearly , work hours.
In , the MMOP Acoustics Subgroup received the Safe-In-Sound Award for Innovation for their combined efforts to mitigate any health effects of noise.
An onboard fire or a toxic gas leak are other potential hazards. Ammonia is used in the external radiators of the station and could potentially leak into the pressurised modules.
After the retirement of the shuttle, the nominal orbit of the space station was raised in altitude. Orbital boosting can be performed by the station's two main engines on the Zvezda service module, or Russian or European spacecraft docked to Zvezda 's aft port.
The Automated Transfer Vehicle is constructed with the possibility of adding a second docking port to its aft end, allowing other craft to dock and boost the station.
It takes approximately two orbits three hours for the boost to a higher altitude to be completed. The Russian Orbital Segment contains the Data Management System, which handles Guidance, Navigation and Control ROS GNC for the entire station.
Zvezda contains the ESA built DMS-R Data Management System. The FTCs each contain three identical processing units working in parallel and provide advanced fault-masking by majority voting.
Zvezda uses gyroscopes reaction wheels and thrusters to turn itself around. Gyroscopes do not require propellant; instead they use electricity to 'store' momentum in flywheels by turning in the opposite direction to the station's movement.
The USOS has its own computer-controlled gyroscopes to handle its extra mass. When gyroscopes 'saturate' , thrusters are used to cancel out the stored momentum.
When attitude control computers in the ROS and USOS fail to communicate properly, this can result in a rare 'force fight' where the ROS GNC computer must ignore the USOS counterpart, which itself has no thrusters.
The low altitudes at which the ISS orbits are also home to a variety of space debris,  including spent rocket stages, defunct satellites, explosion fragments including materials from anti-satellite weapon tests , paint flakes, slag from solid rocket motors, and coolant released by US-A nuclear-powered satellites.
These objects, in addition to natural micrometeoroids ,  are a significant threat. Objects large enough to destroy the station can be tracked, and are not as dangerous as smaller debris.
Despite their small size, some of these objects are a threat because of their kinetic energy and direction in relation to the station.
Spacewalking crew in spacesuits are also at risk of suit damage and consequent exposure to vacuum.
Ballistic panels, also called micrometeorite shielding, are incorporated into the station to protect pressurised sections and critical systems. The type and thickness of these panels depend on their predicted exposure to damage.
The station's shields and structure have different designs on the ROS and the USOS. On the USOS, Whipple Shields are used.
The US segment modules consist of an inner layer made from 1. On the ROS, a carbon fibre reinforced polymer honeycomb screen is spaced from the hull, an aluminium honeycomb screen is spaced from that, with a screen-vacuum thermal insulation covering, and glass cloth over the top.
Space debris is tracked remotely from the ground, and the station crew can be notified. These Debris Avoidance Manoeuvres DAMs are not uncommon, taking place if computational models show the debris will approach within a certain threat distance.
Ten DAMs had been performed by the end of If necessary, the altitude can also be lowered, although such a manoeuvre wastes propellant.
This partial station evacuation has occurred on 13 March , 28 June , 24 March and 16 June The ISS is visible to the naked eye as a slow-moving, bright white dot because of reflected sunlight, and can be seen in the hours after sunset and before sunrise, when the station remains sunlit but the ground and sky are dark.
The ISS, like many satellites including the Iridium constellation , can also produce flares of up to 16 times the brightness of Venus as sunlight glints off reflective surfaces.
Tools are provided by a number of websites such as Heavens-Above see Live viewing below as well as smartphone applications that use orbital data and the observer's longitude and latitude to indicate when the ISS will be visible weather permitting , where the station will appear to rise, the altitude above the horizon it will reach and the duration of the pass before the station disappears either by setting below the horizon or entering into Earth's shadow.
In November NASA launched its "Spot the Station" service, which sends people text and email alerts when the station is due to fly above their town.
Under specific conditions, the ISS can be observed at night on 5 consecutive orbits. Those conditions are 1 a mid-latitude observer location, 2 near the time of the solstice with 3 the ISS passing north of the observer near midnight local time.
Using a telescope-mounted camera to photograph the station is a popular hobby for astronomers,  while using a mounted camera to photograph the Earth and stars is a popular hobby for crew.
Some amateur astronomers also use telescopic lenses to photograph the ISS while it transits the Sun, sometimes doing so during an eclipse and so the Sun, Moon, and ISS are all positioned approximately in a single line.
One example is during the 21 August solar eclipse , where at one location in Wyoming, images of the ISS were captured during the eclipse.
Parisian engineer and astrophotographer Thierry Legault, known for his photos of spaceships transiting the Sun, travelled to Oman in to photograph the Sun, Moon and space station all lined up.
Involving five space programs and fifteen countries,  the International Space Station is the most politically and legally complex space exploration programme in history.
A series of subsequent agreements govern other aspects of the station, ranging from jurisdictional issues to a code of conduct among visiting astronauts.
According to the Outer Space Treaty , the United States and Russia are legally responsible for all modules they have launched. OPSEK was previously intended to be constructed of modules from the Russian Orbital Segment after the ISS is decommissioned.
These newly launched modules would still be well within their useful lives in At the end of , the Exploration Gateway Platform concept also proposed using leftover USOS hardware and Zvezda 2 as a refuelling depot and service station located at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange points.
However, the entire USOS was not designed for disassembly and will be discarded. In February , Roscosmos announced that it would remain a part of the ISS programme until On 28 March , Russian sources announced that Roscosmos and NASA had agreed to collaborate on the development of a replacement for the current ISS.
On 30 September , Boeing's contract with NASA as prime contractor for the ISS was extended to 30 September Part of Boeing's services under the contract will relate to extending the station's primary structural hardware past to the end of Regarding extending the ISS, on 15 November General Director Vladimir Solntsev of RSC Energia stated "Maybe the ISS will receive continued resources.
Today we discussed the possibility of using the station until ", with discussion to continue under the new presidential administration. In July , the Space Frontier Act of was intended to extend operations of the ISS to This bill was unanimously approved in the Senate, but failed to pass in the U.
The ISS has been described as the most expensive single item ever constructed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Space station in low Earth orbit. For other uses, see ISS disambiguation. The ISS on 23 May , as seen from STS Main article: Scientific research on the International Space Station.
Comet Lovejoy photographed by Expedition 30 commander Dan Burbank. Expedition 8 Commander and Science Officer Michael Foale conducts an inspection of the Microgravity Science Glovebox.
CubeSats are deployed by the NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer. Main article: Manufacturing of the International Space Station.
ET from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The ISS U. National Laboratory is sponsoring more than 15 payloads that will bring value to our nation and further enable a sustainable market in low Earth orbit.
View Video. We know many students are learning at home right now, and hands-on activities are especially important to keep students engaged and learning.
Our network of ISS partners has pulled together dozens of no-cost activities for the whole family. After all, we are all in this together.
The ISS National Lab is managed by the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, Inc. CASIS , under agreement with NASA.
Rendering of the International Space Station modules being assembled. To add the Administrative Tools to the Start menu Right-click an empty spot on the toolbar and click Properties.
If you have the radio button for Start menu selected, take the following steps: Click Customize, and then click the Advanced tab. Select the Display on the All Programs menu radio button.
If you have the radio button for Classic Start menu selected, take the following steps: Click Customize. Click OK twice to close the windows.
In this article. SLEs are experienced former heads of school with extensive knowledge of school governance, teaching and learning, recruitment, accreditation, marketing, finances, and facilities.
These are all key functions essential to the development of well-respected, sustainable international schools that achieve growing enrollments, strong student outcomes, healthy teacher retention, and positive financial bottom lines.
Our company contracted with International Schools Services to develop a pre-K — grade 12 school in Bahrain. ISS listened carefully to the aspirations we had for our school and then worked methodically to deliver the school we envisioned.
They handled every aspect of the start-up process, keeping us informed when key decisions were required and coordinating all of the various stakeholders involved in the process including architects, contractors, ministry officials etc.
ISS had the expertise and prior experience we were looking for to deal with the significant complexities of opening a world-class international school.
They took the headaches of starting a new school away and ultimately, we ended up with a truly outstanding school. ISS continues to be a great partner in the ongoing development of our school.
Typical project takes months to start a school, once contract is signed. Largest, most active nonprofit organization in starting and managing schools.
Works with various curricula, including IB curriculum, AP curriculum, and other international curricula.